Water in Somalia is one of the main challenges due to a combination of factors; arid climate, droughts and human-induced conflicts. Moreover, existing water sources are inadequate in terms of accessibility, quality and quantity. Somalia and the horn of Africa in general have long suffered decades of protracted conflicts leading to destruction of key institutions and crucial infrastructure. As a corollary, enforceable regulations for sustainable water management cannot be properly affected further increasing the depletion of groundwater source, contamination and conflict.
Lack of sanitation, safe water facilities and services and poor hygiene are significant contributors to the high rates of disease in Somalia. A comprehensive approach to reducing malnutrition and disease must include increasing access to sanitation and safe water services and addressing hygiene behavior change. Frequently poor hygiene and sanitation practices combined with the use of unsafe water cause chronic and/or acute diarrhea. Integrated interventions which include nutrition and WASH components can help reduce the incidence of diarrhea.